Updated: Nov 6
The intervertebral disc (IVD), a marvel of our spinal anatomy, plays a pivotal role in our daily movements and overall well-being. Nestled between each pair of vertebrae, these discs act as both connectors and shock absorbers, facilitating smooth articulation while absorbing the shocks and strains our spine endures. Comprising 70-90% water, intricately bound within glycoproteoglycans in the extracellular matrix, these discs maintain their resilience due to their high water content. This unique composition allows IVDs to bear the pressures of our daily activities, distributing loads evenly and preventing bone-on-bone contact.
One of the distinctive features of IVDs is their limited direct vascularization. The high intra-discal pressure prevents blood vessels from penetrating deep into the discs. Instead, a peripheral vascular network exists, reaching only the superficial layer. This superficial vascularization poses challenges for the disc's nourishment and self-repair mechanisms. Individuals with cardiovascular issues face an increased risk of degenerated discs due to compromised peripheral circulation, underlining the vital connection between cardiovascular health and spinal well-being.
Understanding the intricate balance between the nucleus pulposus (the central region) and the annulus fibrosus (the outer layer) is essential. The nucleus pulposus bears compression forces akin to bones and cartilage, while the annulus fibrosus, mainly composed of collagen type 1 fibers and fibroblasts, endures traction and torsion forces. Movements involving flexion, heavy weights, or shocks impact the nucleus pulposus, while lateral flexion or rotations stress the annulus fibrosus. The interplay of these forces emphasizes the importance of maintaining a healthy balance in our movements.
The good health of the disc is preserved when these forces are beneficial: allowing the body ample time to rest and regenerate after stress is the key. However, if these forces are applied too strongly and too frequently, the disc may not have the opportunity to regenerate, leading to the possibility of micro lesions. Often, a prolapsed disc occurs due to the accumulation of these small lesions, weakening the disc progressively until the annulus breaks completely. While it can also happen without accumulation, the shocks and forces in such cases must be exceptionally violent.
Moreover, the IVD's nutrient supply is a critical factor in its well-being. Picture the IVD as a sponge, squeezed between the vertebrae. During physical activities, approximately 25% of fluids within the disc are expelled, only to be reabsorbed during periods of rest. This dynamic exchange of fluids is vital, as it brings in essential nutrients and flushes out waste products, ensuring the disc's vitality. Engaging in activities like walking and running, which promote fluid motion, becomes imperative for maintaining a well-hydrated and healthy IVD.
When it comes to addressing IVD issues, osteopathic treatments stand out as holistic and effective approaches. Osteopaths possess the expertise to release local tensions on the disc, promoting better local vascularization and mobility. More than just focusing on the affected area, osteopathy employs a holistic approach, addressing global aspects of the body such as the chest and visceral sphere. By doing so, osteopaths enhance overall blood circulation and restore better global mobility, creating a conducive environment for the IVD to thrive.
In essence, what makes us functional and healthy is the dynamic movement of fluids within our body. This constant flow not only brings fresh blood to various structures but also aids in the removal (catabolism) of wastes, ensuring optimal functioning and vitality. Embracing a lifestyle that promotes fluid movement and considering holistic practices like osteopathy empowers us to maintain a resilient spine and overall well-being for a lifetime.