Trigger points (TP) are localized areas of muscle contraction and tenderness that can cause pain and dysfunction. They are often described as "knots" in the muscle tissue and can be found in both skeletal and smooth muscle. Trigger points are thought to be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle overuse, trauma, and stress.
At the physiological level, trigger points are believed to arise from a dysfunctional muscle spindle, which is a sensory organ located within the muscle tissue that detects changes in muscle length and sends feedback to the central nervous system. When a trigger point develops, it causes the muscle spindle to become stuck in a state of constant activity, which can lead to a shortening of the muscle and a decrease in its flexibility. This can lead to pain, stiffness, and weakness in the affected muscle.
PHYSIOLOGY OG THE TP
The muscle spindle is a sensory receptor that is embedded in muscle fibers. It is responsible for detecting changes in muscle length and tension, and sends this information to the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS then sends signals back to the muscle to adjust its length and tension, which helps to maintain proper movement and posture.
When a trigger point develops, it can cause the muscle spindle to become hyperactive, which leads to a constant state of tension and contraction in the affected muscle. This can lead to a shortening of the muscle fibers and a decrease in their flexibility, which can contribute to pain, stiffness, and weakness in the muscle.
Applying pressure to the trigger point can help to relieve this tension and allow the muscle fibers to return to their normal resting length. This is achieved through a variety of manual therapy techniques, such as massage, myofascial release, and trigger point release.
During these techniques, pressure is applied to the trigger point and surrounding muscle tissue, which can help to break up adhesions and promote the flow of blood and lymphatic fluid to the area. This can help to reduce pain and inflammation, while also promoting the healing of damaged tissue.
USES AND LIMITATIONS
Manual therapy techniques, such as trigger point release, can be used to treat trigger points. Trigger point release involves applying pressure to the affected area, either manually or with the use of tools, in order to release the tension and restore normal muscle function. This pressure can be applied directly to the trigger point or to surrounding areas, and is often accompanied by stretching or other forms of movement.
The benefits of trigger point release include the reduction of pain and muscle tension, as well as improved flexibility and range of motion. However, it is important to note that while trigger point release can be effective in the short-term, it may not address the underlying causes of the trigger point, and may need to be repeated in order to maintain its benefits.
One potential limitation of trigger point release is that it may not address the underlying causes of the trigger point, which can include poor posture, repetitive strain, and stress. Addressing these factors may be necessary in order to prevent the trigger point from recurring.
In addition, it is important to note that while trigger point release can be effective in relieving pain and tension, it may not be appropriate for all individuals or all types of pain. A qualified healthcare professional can help to determine if trigger point release is an appropriate treatment option based on an individual's specific needs and medical history.
Overall, trigger points can have a significant impact on muscle function and quality of life. With proper diagnosis and treatment, however, individuals with trigger points can experience relief from pain and improved function.
In conclusion, trigger points are a common cause of muscle pain and dysfunction, and can be effectively treated with manual therapy techniques such as trigger point release. As with any treatment, it is important to seek the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.